This column was contributed by a association member.
One of my audience is accomplishing a 1031 Barter and anticipation I would allotment a little about how they work.
Every Section 1031 Barter transaction is different. These “Frequently Asked Questions” are advised to acknowledgment accepted inquiries. The appliance of these attempt will depend on the specific facts of anniversary transaction. Always argue a competent Qualified Intermediary, attorney, or tax adviser to actuate how an barter may best be structured to achieve your advance objectives.
Q – What is a tax-deferred exchange?
In a archetypal transaction, the acreage client is burdened on any accretion accomplished from the sale. However, through a Section 1031 Exchange, the tax on the accretion is deferred until some approaching date.
Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code provides that no accretion or accident shall be accustomed on the barter of acreage captivated for advantageous use in a barter or business, or for investment. A tax-deferred barter is a adjustment by which a acreage client trades one or added alone backdrop for one or added backup backdrop of “like-kind”, while deferring the acquittal of federal assets taxes and some accompaniment taxes on the transaction.
The approach abaft Section 1031 is that back a acreage client has reinvested the auction accretion into addition property, the bread-and-er accretion has not been accomplished in a way that generates funds to pay any tax. In added words, the taxpayer’s advance is still the same, alone the anatomy has afflicted (e.g. abandoned acreage exchanged for accommodation building). Therefore, it would be arbitrary to force the aborigine to pay tax on a “paper” gain.
The like-kind barter beneath Section 1031 is tax-deferred, not tax-free. Back the backup acreage is ultimately awash (not as allotment of addition exchange), the aboriginal deferred gain, added any added accretion accomplished back the acquirement of the backup property, is accountable to tax.
Q – What are the allowances of exchanging v. selling?
Q – What are the altered types of exchanges?
Q – What are the requirements for a accurate exchange?
Q – What are the accepted guidelines to chase in adjustment for a aborigine to adjourn all the taxable gain?
Q – Back can I booty money out of the barter account?
Once the money is deposited into an barter account, funds can alone be aloof in accordance with the Regulations. The aborigine cannot accept any money until the barter is complete. If you appetite to accept a allocation of the accretion in cash, this charge be done afore the funds are deposited with the Qualified Intermediary.
Q – Can the backup acreage eventually be adapted to the taxpayer’s primary abode or a vacation home?
Yes, but the captivation requirements of Section 1031 charge be met above-mentioned to alteration the primary use of the property. The IRS has no specific regulations on captivation periods. However, abounding experts feel that to be on the safe side, the aborigine should authority the backup acreage for a able use for a aeon of at atomic one year.
If the client afterwards on wants to booty advantage of the home owner’s absolution (up to $250,000 or $500,000 for a couple), there is now a bristles year captivation aeon requirement.
Q – What is a Qualified Intermediary (QI)?
A Qualified Intermediary is an absolute affair who facilitates tax-deferred exchanges pursuant to Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code. The QI cannot be the aborigine or a erfingers person.
Q – Why is a Qualified Intermediary needed?
The barter ends the moment the aborigine has absolute or effective cancellation (i.e. absolute or aberrant use or control) of the accretion from the auction of the alone property. The use of a QI is a safe anchorage accustomed by the Treasury Regulations. If the aborigine meets the requirements of this safe harbor, the IRS will not accede the aborigine to be in cancellation of the funds. The auction accretion go anon to the QI, who holds them until they are bare to access the backup property. The QI again delivers the funds anon to the closing agent.
Q – Can the aborigine aloof advertise the alone acreage and put the money in a abstracted coffer account, alone to be acclimated for the acquirement of the backup property?
The IRS regulations are absolute clear. The aborigine may not accept the accretion or booty effective cancellation of the funds in any way, afterwards disqualifying the exchange.
Q – If the aborigine has already active a adjustment to advertise the alone property, is it too backward to alpha a tax-deferred exchange?
No, as continued as the aborigine has not transferred title, or the allowances and burdens of the alone property, she can still set up a tax-deferred Exchange. Once the closing occurs, it is too backward to booty advantage of a Section 1031 tax-deferred barter (even if the aborigine has not cashed the accretion check).
Q – Does the Qualified Intermediary absolutely booty appellation to the properties?
No, not in best situations. The IRS regulations acquiesce the backdrop to be deeded anon amid the parties, aloof as in a accustomed auction transaction. The taxpayer’s interests in the acreage acquirement and auction affairs are assigned to the QI. The QI again instructs the acreage client to accomplishment the acreage anon to the adapted affair (for the alone property, its buyer; for the backup property, taxpayer).
Q – What are the time restrictions on commutual a Section 1031 exchange?
A aborigine has 45 canicule afterwards the date that the alone acreage is transferred to
properly yze abeyant backup properties. The barter charge be completed by the date that is 180 canicule afterwards the alteration of the alone property, or the due date of the taxpayer’s federal tax acknowledgment for the year in which the alone acreage was transferred, whichever is earlier. Thus, for a agenda year taxpayer, the barter aeon may be cut abbreviate for any barter that begins afterwards October 17th. However, the aborigine can get the abounding 180 days, by accepting an addendum of the due date for filing the tax return.
Q – What if the aborigine cannot yze any backup acreage aural 45 days, or aing on a backup acreage afore the end of the barter period?
Unfortunately, there are no extensions available. If the aborigine does not accommodated the time limits, the barter will abort and the aborigine will accept to pay any taxes arising from the auction of the alone property, unless the IRS has especially accepted extensions in defined adversity area(s).
Q – Is there any absolute to the cardinal of backdrop that can be identified?
There are three rules that absolute the cardinal of backdrop that can be identified. The aborigine charge accommodated the requirements of at atomic one of these rules:
Q – What are the requirements to appropriately yze backup property?
Potential backup acreage charge be articular in a writing, active by the taxpayer, and delivered to a affair to the barter who is not advised a “disqualified person”. A “disqualified” actuality is any one who has a accord with the aborigine that is so aing that the actuality is accepted to be beneath the ascendancy of the taxpayer. Examples accommodate claret relatives, and any actuality who is or has been the taxpayer’s attorney, accountant, advance broker or absolute acreage abettor aural the two years above-mentioned to the closing of the alone property. The identification cannot be fabricated orally.
Q – Are Section 1031 Exchanges bound alone to absolute estate?
No. Any acreage that is captivated for advantageous use in a barter or business, or for investment, may authorize for tax-deferred ysis beneath Section 1031. In fact, abounding exchanges are “multi-asset” exchanges, involving both absolute acreage and claimed property.
Q – What is a “multi-asset” exchange?
A multi-asset barter involves both absolute and claimed property. For example, the auction of a auberge will about accommodate the basal acreage and buildings, as able-bodied as the accoutrement and equipment. If the aborigine wants to barter the auberge for a agnate property, he would barter the acreage and barrio as one allotment of the exchange. The accoutrement and accessories would be afar into groups of like-kind or like-class property, with the groups of alone acreage actuality exchanged for groups of backup property.
Although the ogue of like-kind is abundant narrower for claimed acreage and business equipment, accurate planning will acquiesce the aborigine to adore the allowances of an barter for the absolute alone property, not aloof for the absolute acreage portion.
Q – What is a about-face exchange?
A about-face exchange, sometimes alleged a “parking arrangement,” occurs back a aborigine acquires a Backup Acreage afore administration of their Alone Property. A “pure” about-face exchange, breadth the aborigine owns both the Alone and Backup backdrop at the aforementioned time, is not allowed. The absolute accretion of the “parked” acreage is done by an Barter Accommodation Titleholder (EAT) or parking entity.
Q – Is a about-face barter permissible?
Yes. Although the Treasury Regulations still do not administer to about-face exchanges, the IRS issued “safe harbor” guidelines for about-face exchanges on September 15th, 2000, in Revenue Procedure 2000-37. Acquiescence with the safe anchorage creates assertive presumptions that will accredit the transaction to authorize for Section 1031 tax-deferred barter treatment.
Q – How does a about-face barter work?
In a archetypal about-face (or “parking”) exchange, the “Exchange Accommodation Titleholder” (EAT) takes appellation to (“parks”) the backup acreage and holds it until the aborigine is able to advertise the alone property. The aborigine again exchanges with the EAT, who now owns the backup property. An barter structured aural the safe anchorage of Rev. Proc. 2000-37 cannot accept a parking aeon that goes above 180 days.
Q – What happens if the barter cannot be completed aural 180 days?
If the about-face barter aeon exceeds 180 days, again the barter is alfresco the safe anchorage of Rev. Proc. 2000-37. With accurate planning, it is accessible to anatomy a about-face barter that will go above 180 days, but the aborigine will lose the presumptions that accompany acquiescence with the safe harbor.
Q – Can the accretion from the alone acreage be acclimated to accomplish improvements to the backup property?
Yes. This is accepted as a Build-to-Suit or Construction or Improvement Exchange. It is agnate in abstraction to a about-face exchange. The aborigine is not acceptable to body on acreage she already owns. Therefore, an altered affair or parking article charge booty appellation to the backup property, accomplish the improvements, and back appellation to the aborigine afore the end of the barter period.
Q- What is the aberration amid “realized” accretion and “recognized” gain?
Realized accretion is the access in the taxpayer’s bread-and-er position as a aftereffect of the exchange. In a sale, tax is paid on the accomplished gain. Accustomed accretion is the taxable gain. Accustomed accretion is the bottom of accomplished accretion or the net cossack received.
Q – What is Boot?
Boot is any acreage accustomed by the aborigine in the barter which is not like-kind to the alone property. Cossack is characterized as either “cash” cossack or “mortgage” boot. Accomplished Accretion is accustomed to the admeasurement of net cossack received.
Q – What is Mortgage Boot?
Mortgage Cossack consists of liabilities affected or accustomed up by the taxpayer. The aborigine pays mortgage cossack back he assumes or places debt on the backup property. The aborigine receives mortgage cossack back he is adequate of debt on the backup property. If the aborigine does not access debt that is according to or greater than the debt that was paid off, they are advised to be adequate of debt. The debt abatement allocation is taxable, unless account back netted adjoin added cossack in the transaction.
Q – What is Banknote Boot?
Cash Cossack is any cossack accustomed by the taxpayer, added than mortgage boot. Banknote cossack may be in the anatomy of money or added property.
Q – What are the cossack “netting” rules?
Q – I bought the acreage as a distinct actuality and I would like to access the backup acreage calm with my spouse?
The best bourgeois way is to break constant and complete the barter the aforementioned way it was started and to add the apron afterwards the achievement of the exchange. An barring can be fabricated if there is a lender claim that the apron has to be added in adjustment to authorize for a loan. If an barter is planned able-bodied advanced of time, addition band-aid would be to add the apron to the appellation of the currently captivated property. Timing should be discussed with the CPA.
Q – I bankrupt escrow on my aboriginal backup acreage aural the 45 day identification period. Can I now yze three added backdrop aural my 45 day identification period?
If you are application the three acreage rule, the completed accretion counts as one and you may yze alone up to two added properties.
Q – How do I yze two altered backdrop (or percentages of buying through a TIC) covered by ONE acquirement contract?
If the backdrop could be awash alone at a afterwards date, they should be articular as two properties.
Information Provided by Donna Antonucci
Prudential Castle Point Realty
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