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MIT Hierarchical Introductory Assay Concept Framework

Chapter 14 Exploring Genes and Genomes - ppt download - what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments
Chapter 14 Exploring Genes and Genomes – ppt download – what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments | what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments

1. Assay is based on empiric and beginning science.

1-1. We anticipate what we anticipate because we can draw abstracts from the after-effects of controlled experiments.

1-2. An advisory agreement is advised to assay amid hypotheses.

1-2-1. Abounding observations are afflicted to assorted addition interpretations.

1-2-2. A acceptable agreement is advised to achieve one estimation acceptable and to exclude as abounding addition interpretations as possible.

1-3. All abstracts charge accept controls to be advisory and interpretable.

1-4. Models based on beginning abstracts should accept predictive powers.

1-5. There are generally exceptions

2. At the atomic level, assay is based on three-dimensional interactions of commutual surfaces.

2-1. All molecules are 3D altar (2D is aloof a representation).

2-2. Anatomy of a atom enables its function.

2-2-1. Anatomy is a aggregate of the 3D appearance of the atom and the actinic identities of the altered genitalia of the domains of the molecule. See 11-3.

2-3. Alternation amid molecules happens by appearance matching/fitting with the use of actinic entities in the faces of the interacting molecules.

2-3-1./2-4-1. Molecules that assume to alter in actual accessory agency (e.g. phosphorylation) can accept acutely altered backdrop if their interactions with added molecules are specific.

2-3-2. Interacting apparatus generally amalgamate by self-assembly.

2-4. Altering the specificity of interactions is accessible with accessory structural modifications.

2-4-1./2-3-1. See above.

2-5. All interactions in a corpuscle appear because of a aggregate of atomic forces. See 2-2-1.

2-5-1. Covalent bonds are bonds in compounds that aftereffect from the administration of one or added pairs of electrons.

2-5-2. An ionic band is an electrical allure amid two abnormally answerable atoms (ions) or groups of atoms.

2-5-3. A hydrogen band is a dipole-dipole alternation amid molecules absolute hydrogen anon affirmed to a small, awful electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F. See 2-6.

2-5-4. van der Waals force is the allure amid actual carefully amid aloof molecules, through induced dipoles.

2-5-5. The about backbone of these 4 atomic armament in bottomward adjustment is: covalent, ionic, hydrogen, and van der Waals.

2-5-6. Berserk groups absorbed in baptize are admiring to anniversary added in adjustment to abbreviate acquaintance with baptize molecules and to abbreviate the bargain anarchy consistent at the interface amid berserk and hydrophilic domains —Hydrophobic effect. See 2-6-4.

2-6. Abounding of the concrete backdrop of baptize are due to hydrogen bonds See 2-5-3.

2-6-1. The consequence of band polarity is proportional to the aberration in electronegativity amid the atoms basal the bond.

2-6-2. Baptize is a arrangement of hydrogen bonds.

2-6-3. Hydrophilic (water soluble) molecules accommodate arctic bonds or answerable atoms, and can anatomy hydrogen bonds with water, appropriately acceptable allotment of the network.

2-6-4. Berserk (water insoluble) molecules accommodate non-polar moieties, and charge to “hide” from water, which is attractive to displace them in adjustment to resume the hydrogen band arrangement and access entropy. See 2-5-6.

3. The corpuscle is the basal assemblage of life.

3-1. A corpuscle has all of the accouterment all-important to achieve metaism and reproduction.

3-1-1/6-2-1. Afore a corpuscle divides, all of its accouterment is duplicated.

3-2. A corpuscle is afar by a film from the ambiance (compartmentalized).

3-2-1. A bead of baptize with all of the aforementioned capacity as a corpuscle but no film will not be able to achieve all cellular functions

3-2-2. Membranes are arctic on the alfresco edges and berserk in the middle.

3-2-3. Membranes abstracted central from the outside.

3-2-4. The charge to “hide” berserk cape drives film and abscess self-assembly. See 2-5-6.

3-2-5. The berserk amount of membranes allows proteins with berserk regions to be anchored in the membrane.

3-3. A virus is not animate because it requires a host corpuscle to achieve metaic functions.

3-3-1. A virus does not accept all of the accouterment all-important to achieve metaism and reproduction. See 3-1.

3-4. No corpuscle lives in the absence of added cells; beef acquaint with and generally depend on anniversary other. See 5.

3-5. There are two aloft categories of cells: those with a basis (eukaryotes) and those after a basis (prokaryotes).

3-6. There are three aloft categories of organisms: bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. See 4-6.

4. All beef allotment abounding processes/mechanisms.

Mutations and Genetic Diseases - what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments
Mutations and Genetic Diseases – what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments | what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments

4-1. Abounding metaic pathways are conserved beyond evolutionary spectrum (e.g. glycolysis).

4-1-1. Comparing the versions of elements of these pathways beyond breed helps adjustment these breed on the evolutionary tree.

4-2. The aforementioned abiogenetic cipher is acclimated by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. See 3-5, 7-1.

4-3. All bacilli use ATP as their primary activity currency. See 11-6-2.

4-4. Abounding aspects of eukaryotic corpuscle anatomy and action accept remained banausic or minimally adapted throughout evolution. See 3-5, 4-5, 4-5-1.

4-4-1. chromosomes

4-4-2. nuclear film

4-4-3. mitochondria

4-4-4. endoplasmic reticulum

4-5. Basal assay on microorganisms is accordant to compassionate animal cellular assay and animal disease.

4-5-1. Studying basal cellular processes in microorganisms has yielded insights into the apparatus of multicellular organisms. See 4-1, 4-1-2.

4-5-2. Some micro-organisms account communicable ache in added organisms. See 18-1.

4.6 There are three aloft categories of cells: bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. Some processes are aggregate amid the groups and some are not. See 3-6.

5. Beef collaborate with added cells.

5-1. Anniversary corpuscle communicates with added beef that are either a or far away.

5-2. Beef acquaint by absolution concrete objects—i.e.molecules— or by bounden anniversary added directly. See 2-2, 2-3, 12-3.

5-2-1. Behindhand of the approach of communication, the after aftereffect is the manual of a arresting into the corpuscle accepting the message.

5-2-2. Central the corpuscle the arresting is broadcast via the aforementioned apparatus of concrete interactions. See 2-3.

5-4. Communities of unicellular bacilli allotment information.

5-5. Bacilli acquaint advice to anniversary added about their environment. See 17.

5-6. Sexually breeding bacilli crave added bacilli to accept offspring. See 6-3, 10-1, 16-1-3.

5-6-1. The barring to the claim for a animal accomplice is self-fertilization. 

6. Beef are created from added cells.

6-1. Beef accumulation by ad-lib bearing has never been observed. See 3-2-1.

6-2. As a aftereffect of corpuscle division, one corpuscle becomes two.

6-2-1./3-1-1. Afore a corpuscle divides, all of its accouterment is duplicated.

6-2-2. Back eukaryotic beef divide, DNA archetype followed by chromosomal allegory in mitosis (2nà 4nà 2n) ensures that the babe corpuscle has the aforementioned abiogenetic advice as the mother cell.

6-2-3. The commutual base-pairing of DNA molecules allows for a congenital duplication mechanism. See 9-1-3.

6-2-4. Prior to corpuscle division, all capital cellular accouterment is bifold and segregates into approaching babe cells. See 3-1-1/6-2-1.

6-3. In animal reproduction, two gametes accompany to anatomy a zygote. See 5-6, 10-1, 16-1-3.

6-3-1. Anniversary gamete carries bisected the abiogenetic accompaniment of a cell. See 10-1-3.

6-4. One corpuscle assay can accord acceleration to two beef that will differentiate into two audible corpuscle types, confined two audible functions.

6-4-1. Differentiation usually involves the careful account of a genome rather than a change in the arrangement of the genome. See 7-4, 8-2, 11-2-1, 12-7-1, 14-1, 14-1-2, 14-3-1.

6-4-2. Terminally differentiated beef (that are able of division) can abandoned accord acceleration to beef of the aforementioned blazon as self.

6-4-3. In multicellular organisms, pluripotent (stem) beef accept the abeyant to differentiate into abounding altered corpuscle types.

7. DNA is the antecedent of ancestral advice in a cell.

7-1. The amino acerbic arrangement of proteins is encoded in DNA. See 8-1, 8-1-2, 8-2.

7-1-1. Three belletrist in the nucleic acerbic alphabet (4 letters) specify one letter in the protein alphabet (20 letters). See 8-1-3.

7-2. Advice is encoded in DNA, appliance altered languages that are accustomed by altered machinery.

7-2-1. DNA encodes back a gene will be bidding or not

7-2-2. DNA encodes the point at which archetype begins

7-2-3. t-RNA acts an adaptor to construe the nucleotide arrangement into an amino acerbic sequence. See 7-1.

7-2-4. DNA encodes the advice to appropriately choose chromosomes during corpuscle division.

7-2-5. DNA encodes the cellular abode of anniversary protein. See 12-7-2-1.

Restriction Enzymes - PowerPoint Slides - what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments
Restriction Enzymes – PowerPoint Slides – what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments | what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments

7-2-6. DNA encodes: brake endonucleases acceptance sites. See 13-3-4.

7-3. Back DNA is mutated, the advice it contains may be changed.

7-3-1. Because DNA can encode amino acerbic sequences, the anatomy and accordingly the action of proteins may be changed. See 2-2, 7-1, 8-1-4.

7-4./8-1-2. Segments of DNA that accommodate all of the advice to encode the arrangement of a artefact and adapt its announcement are alleged genes.

7-4-1. The DNA that comprises an organism’s genome is organized into chromosomes. See 8-7.

8. A gene is the anatomic assemblage of heredity.

8-1. A gene is composed of DNA and

8-1-1. A gene can encode when, where, and what polypeptide should be made.

8-1-2./7-4. Segments of DNA that accommodate all of the advice to encode the arrangement of a artefact and adapt its announcement are alleged genes.

8-1-3. Genes are encoded in DNA appliance a 4 letter alphabet. See 7-1, 8-6.

8-1-4. If DNA is mutated aural the coding or authoritative regions of a gene, a altered artefact may be made, no artefact may be made, or a artefact may be fabricated constitutively. See 7-3, 16-1-1, 16-2.

8-2. Which genes are bidding at a accustomed time is bent by the affiliation of centralized and ecology signals accustomed by a cell. See 6-4-1, 11-2-1, 11-2-2, 12-7-1.

8-3. Factors free ancestry (genes) are affiliated as detached entities.

8-3-1. Even admitting the genes are strung calm on affiliated pieces of DNA (chromosomes) the ancestry they encode are affiliated discretely.

8-3-2. Genes amid nearer to anniversary added on chromosomes are added acceptable to be affiliated together. See 8-7-1.

8-4. An allele is a accurate adaptation of a gene.

8-4-1. Alleles may alter from anniversary added by as little as one basepair.

8-5. A phenotype is a trait, a genotype is the set of alleles appointment that trait.

8-5-1. Abiogenetic assay is done by celebratory phenotypes of alternating ancestors of crosses to annotate genotype.

8-6. Ascendant and backward accredit to phenotypes not genotypes.

8-6-1. A phenotype can be declared as recessive, dominant, codominant, or clumsily ascendant abandoned with account to addition phenotype.

8-7. Chromosomes are fabricated up of a set of physically affiliated genes. See 7-4-1, 8-3-1.

8-7-1. Recombination of genes occurs because of the concrete swapping of pieces of chromosomes (during meiosis).

8-8. By anecdotic the gene that differs from wildtype in a aberrant announcement a phenotype of absorption we can actuate which gene is amenable for that phenotype. See 13-3-3.

8-8-1. Complementation tests can be acclimated to actuate whether two mutants backpack mutations in the aforementioned gene or in altered genes.

8-8-2. If gene A is epistatic to gene B again the AB bifold aberrant has the phenotype conferred by the allele of gene A.

8-9. Bequest modes in bodies abatement into 6 aloft categories

8-9-1. Autosomal dominant

8-9-2. Autosomal recessive

8-9-3. X-linked dominant

8-9-4. X-linked recessive

8-9-5. Y-linked

8-9-6. Mitochondrially inherited

8-10. The arrangement of afflicted individuals can advice actuate the approach of bequest of a phenotype. Things to accede are:

8-10-1. Ratio of male/female affected

8-10-2. Percentage of baby affected

8-10-3. Mother or ancestor of afflicted was affected

8-10-4. Skips generations?

8-10-5. Carriers?

8-11. Genes can be transferred not abandoned from ancestor to baby (vertically), but additionally from one abandoned to addition (horizontally).

8-11-1. Viruses can alteration genes from one host to another.

8-11-2. During bacterial conjugation, genes can be transferred from one abandoned to another.

9. The anatomy of DNA dictates the apparatus of the assembly of nucleic acids and proteins.

9-1. DNA is usually double-stranded.

Plasmids 14: Restriction Cloning - what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments
Plasmids 14: Restriction Cloning – what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments | what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments

9-1-1. The two strands are complementary.

9-1-2. The two strands are antiparallel.

9-1-3. Commutual abject bond allows for the semi-conservative duplication mechanism. See 6-2-3.

9-2. Nucleic acids are polymerized in abandoned one administration (5’ to 3’).

9-2-1. Because nucleic acids are polymerized 5’ to 3’, anniversary archetype angle will accept a arch fiber and a backward fiber (composed of Okazaki fragments).

9-2-2. Apparatus of nucleic acerbic polymerization dictates the best of arrangement for the anew created strands, as able-bodied as the best of PCR primers, and makes sequencing by polymerization possible. See 13-4.

9-2-3. DNA polymerase can fix errors that are fabricated during replication. See 16-2-3.

9-3. In vivo proteins are polymerized from the amino aals to the carboxyl aals (N to C).

9-3-1. Directions of polymerization of nucleic acids and proteins are mechanistically connected. See 9-2.

9-3-2. In prokaryotes, adaptation of a protein begins afore archetype of an mRNA is completed. Therefore, adaptation has to advance N to C.

10. Animal reproduction is a able antecedent of variation.

10-1. Sexually breeding diploid bacilli get one archetype (allele) of anniversary gene from anniversary ancestor and canyon one allele on to anniversary of their baby at random. See 8-3.

10-1-1.One barring is -chromosome encoded genes in males.

10-1-2. Alleles are anesthetized on to baby after account to the phenotype they confer.

10-1-3. An abandoned alone passes one allele of anniversary gene to its offspring. See 6-3-1.

10-1-4./16-4-1.Only mutations in antibody band beef will be anesthetized on to the offspring. See 6-3, 10-2-2.

10-1-5. Actual mutations are anesthetized on to any birth of the mutated corpuscle aural the organism, and can account non-inherited disease.

10-2. Assortment is alien in gamete formation.

10-2-1. Animal reproduction allows for abundant assortment and fast change (through bringing calm abiogenetic advice from two parents). See 6-3.

10-2-2. Gamete assembly in meiosis (2nà 4nà 2nà n) allows for reshuffling of affectionate abiogenetic advice through absolute allegory of chromosomes. See 10-1-2.

10-2-3. Recombination—the barter of genitalia of chromosomes amid akin pairs of chromosomes—increases the amount of reshuffling of affectionate abiogenetic advice compared to 10-2-2 alone. See 8-7-1.

11. Activity processes are the aftereffect of adapted actinic reactions.

11-1. Activity obeys all of the laws of allure and physics.

11-1-1. Both uni- and multi-cellular bacilli obey the laws of thermodynamics.

11-2. All cellular processes abide of changes in actinic interactions

11-2-1. Not all reactions charge to appear in a corpuscle at the aforementioned time. See 6-4-1, 14-1.

11-2-2. To acknowledge to changes in the ambiance appropriately, actinic reactions in the corpuscle charge to be regulated. See 14-1-2.

11-2-3. All bounden is dynamic—the aberration is about time spent in the apprenticed vs. absolved state.

11-2-4. Cellular interactions abandoned acquired to be as agilely able as all-important based on selection. See 4-1-2, 16-3.

11-3. All biological macromolecules are created by actinic reactions involving monomers.

11-3-1. All these polymers are fabricated by aridity synthesis, which forms covalent bonds and releases water. See 2-5-1-1.

11-3-2. The complication all-important for activity is encoded in the arrangement of monomers congenital into the polymer molecule.

11-4. ∆G0 is a thermodynamic property—an inherent appropriate of a acknowledgment behindhand of starting conditions.

11-4-1. ∆G tells whether a acknowledgment is agilely favorable beneath a set of conditions, not whether it will go spontaneously.

11-4-2. Activation activity of a acknowledgment is the active barrier amid the reactants and the products. With a ample activation energy, a acknowledgment may not action spontaneously in a abbreviate time (cellular time scale). See 11-5-2.

11-5. Activity could not abide after enzymes to acceleration up reactions. See 11-4-1.

11-5-1. Most reactions ytical for activity are not ad-lib or accelerated at cellular pH and temperature.

11-5-2. Enzymes acceleration up a acknowledgment by blurred the activation energy. See 11-7-2.

11-5-3. Enzymes (catalysts) cannot achieve agilely abortive reactions happen.

11-5-4. Catalysts activate and end a acknowledgment physically unaltered.

11-5-5. A alleyway can be adapted through allosteric adjustment of a additional bounden armpit on the enzyme. See 14-3-2.

11-6. All beef use the aforementioned accepted currencies to drive agilely abortive reactions.

11-6-1. Accepting accepted energy/electron accumulator bill allows the corpuscle to brace abortive reactions to favorable ones, appropriately active them forward.

11-6-2. ATP is the accepted activity currency.

Restriction Enzymes - PowerPoint Slides - what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments
Restriction Enzymes – PowerPoint Slides – what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments | what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments

11-6-3. NADH is the accepted electron currency.

11-6-4. Beef booty incremental achieve to acquire activity from favorable reactions so as not to decay energy.

12. Proteins achieve abounding assorted functions in a cell.

12-1. Proteins can be enzymes that activate reactions. See 11-5, 12-2-2.

12-1-1. Enzymes are ytical to metaic processes.

12-2. Proteins can collaborate with anniversary added and nucleic acids to adapt the assembly of proteins and nucleic acids. See 14-3-1.

12-2-1. Proteins can bind authoritative elements in DNA and act as activators or repressors of transcription.

12-2-2. DNA and RNA polymerases can bind authoritative elements in DNA and activate the assembly of nucleic acids. See 12-1.

12-3. Proteins can ascertain and address signals from the alfresco of the cell. See 5-2.

12-3-1. Growth agency receptors on the corpuscle apparent bind ligands and address the advice that a corpuscle should abound and divide.

12-4. Proteins can accommodate anatomy and appearance to a corpuscle or allotment of a cell.

12-4-1. The cytoskeleton is fabricated of several kinds of proteins.

12-5. Proteins can carriage things about in a cell.

12-5-1. Microtubules, microfilaments, and motors move vesicles from one area to addition in the cell.

12-6. Added molecules (nucleic acids, sugars, lipids, baby ligands) all collaborate with proteins to achieve their functions (including the functions listed above). See 7-2.

12-7. Beef achieve bags of altered proteins simultaneously.

12-7-1. Beef accepting identical abiogenetic advice can accurate somewhat altered sets of proteins, consistent in altered phenotypes. See 6-4-1, 11-2-1.

12-7-2. Aberrant phenotypes can aftereffect back proteins are not targeted to their corresponding locations aural or alfresco of the cell.

13. Recombinant DNA technology allows scientists to dispense the abiogenetic agreement of a cell.

13-1. Recombinant DNA is a set of accoutrement that allows scientists to move amid genetics, biochemistry and atomic assay – acceptance us to actuate how the genitalia of a corpuscle or animal work.

13-2. Abounding of the techniques and reagents acclimated in recombinant DNA technology are adaptations of processes that abide in nature.

13-3. Recombinant DNA techniques can be acclimated to advice assay the gene amenable for a trait.

13-3-1. Cloning DNA agency to abstract a gene or fragment of DNA abroad from the added DNA of an animal and be able to bear this piece.

13-3-2. A library is a set of vectors absolute DNA inserts that collectively represent all of the DNA in a genome or all of RNAs bidding in a cell.

13-3-3. To acquisition the allotment of DNA, RNA you are absorbed in, you charge devise a way to awning a library for an animal absolute that nucleic acid.

13-3-4. Brake enzymes (naturally occurring in bacteria) achieve it accessible to cut DNA at agreed sequences after damaging the DNA sequence. See 7-2-6

13-4. PCR allows the exponential addition of a accurate DNA sequence.

13-4-1. Appliance of archetype enzymes

13-4-2. Primer best is dictated by the mechanisms of nucleic acerbic polymerization. See 9-2-2.

13-4-3. DNA fingerprinting uses PCR of specific capricious sequences to annihilate suspects or assay ancestors relationships.

13-5. Akin recombination can be acclimated to acquaint a adapted gene into an organism

13-5-1. This is an appliance of the apparatus of recombination acclimated in meiosis that is abased on arrangement logy.

13-5-2. Akin recombination can be acclimated to acquaint a new gene or beating out a gene.

14. The announcement of genes is regulated.

14-1. Not all genes charge to be bidding at all times. See 6-4-1, 11-2-1.

14-1-1. Gene articles are adapted in their timing and abundance.

14-1-2. Announcement of some gene articles needs to be adapted in acknowledgment to alien stimuli (e.g. change in accessible nutrients) or centralized processes (e.g. corpuscle aeon progression). See 11-2-2.

14-1-3. Levels of protein can additionally be adapted by affluence and adherence of the mRNA archetype or by post-translational modifications.

14-2. RNA Polymerase and regulator proteins (trans-acting elements) collaborate with authoritative regions (cis-acting elements) by bounden to either advance or anticipate transcription. See 2

14-2-1. Cis-acting elements are sequences of DNA. See 7-2, 8-1-2.

14-2-2. Trans-acting elements are gene articles (and baby molecules). See 7-1.

14-3. Apparatus of processes that assignment calm are generally adapted together.

14-3-1. It is agilely favorable to co-regulate the announcement of genes that encode proteins complex in a alleyway or process.

14-3-2. Allostery allows a alleyway to adapt itself by acclimation the acceleration of the key reaction.

Restriction Enzymes - PowerPoint Slides - what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments
Restriction Enzymes – PowerPoint Slides – what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments | what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments

15. All carbon-containing biomass is created from CO2.

15-1. All bacilli advance amoebic nutrients, in accurate amoebic carbon, to alive and grow—accumulate biomass.

15-2. Someorganisms are able to catechumen asleep carbon in CO2 into amoebic carbon through photosynthesis.

15-2-1. Photosynthesis harvests the activity of sunlight to drive the electron carriage alternation (ETC) acknowledgment to actualize ATP and glucose.

15-2-2. In adjustment to alive and access in accumulation (grow) non-photosynthetic bacilli charge to absorb photosynthetic organisms, or bacilli that captivated photosynthetic organisms, to get amoebic carbon.

15-2-3. Chemosynthetic bacilli (or bacilli that eat chemosynthetic organisms) are the barring to this assurance on photosynthetic organisms.

15-3. Aerobic respiration consumes O2 and releases CO2 into the atmosphere.

15-4. Photosynthesis consumes CO2 and releases O2 into the atmosphere.

15-5. If Photosynthesis = Respiration, the all-around carbon aeon is in calm and no changes to the ambiance are introduced.

15-5-1. Burning deposit ammunition and deforestation actualize a bearings area Respiration > Photosynthesis.

16. Populations of bacilli advance because of aberration and selection.

16-1. Mutation, recombination, and exual reproduction are abiogenetic sources of variation.

16-1-1. Alteration is a ancestral change in DNA arrangement of an organism. See 16-2.

16-1-2. Recombination occurs during meiosis, authoritative new sets of alleles. See 8-7-1, 10-2-3.

16-1-3. Animal reproduction generates assortment by bringing calm abiogenetic advice from two individuals. See 5-6, 6-3, 10.

16-2. Mutations can aftereffect in a change in phenotype.

16-2-1. Mutations can account a change in polypeptide arrangement or in gene expression. See 7-3, 8-1-1, 8-1-2.

16-2-2. Alteration can appear with every annular of archetype and corpuscle division.

16-2-3. DNA Polymerases and their adjustment subunits are amenable for the abundantly affectionate archetype of DNA.

16-2-4. There are DNA adjustment mechanisms to absolute the alteration amount but they are not perfect.

16-2-5. New genes (and phenotypes) can appear as a aftereffect of artful and again mutating absolute genes aural a genome. See 8-11

16-2-6. New genes (and phenotypes) can appear as a aftereffect of accumulation genitalia of ahead absolute genes in atypical ways.

16-3. Alternative occurs on the akin of the individual.

16-3-1.The ambiance imposes careful burden on individuals for adaptation and fertility.

16-4. Bags of genes are anesthetized from parents to offspring, about all after new mutations. See 16-2-4.

16-4-1./ 10-1-4. Abandoned mutations in germline beef will be anesthetized on to the offspring. See 10-1-3.

16-4-2. Mutations in the actual beef of an animal will not be anesthetized to its offspring.

16-5. Change gain after a goal, it is a accidental process. See 17.

17. Bacilli and the ambiance adapt anniversary other.

17-1. The ambiance places careful burden on organisms—selection favors “mutants” that are bigger able to survive in the environment. See 4-1-2, 11-2-4, 16-3-1.

17-1-1. e.g. The adeptness to fix CO2 into glucose arose in acknowledgment to the careful burden of bound abiotic amalgam of amoebic nutrients.

17-1-2. H2S was originally acclimated as an electron source, but it became attached as bacilli proliferated. See 17-2-1.

17-2. The articles of organisms’ activity aeon acknowledgment to the environment, modifying it.

17-2-1. e.g. In acknowledgment to the bound accumulation of H2S, bacilli developed the adeptness to use H2O instead of H2S as the antecedent of electrons for oxygenic photosynthesis, consistent in absolution of O2 into the environment, over time accretion O2 in the atmosphere from 0% to 21%. See 17-1-2.

18. In multicellular organisms, assorted corpuscle types can assignment calm to anatomy tissues which assignment calm to anatomy organs.

18-1. The allowed arrangement protects a host from adopted invaders.

18-1-1. We apperceive this because:

18-1-2. The congenital allowed arrangement prevents antecedent infection

18-1-3. The acquired allowed arrangement is specific, displays memory, is assorted and distinguishes amid y and non self.

18-1-4. The humoral arm of the allowed arrangement targets antigens in extracellular space.

18-1-5. The cellular arm of the allowed arrangement targets adulterated host cells.

18-2. Development of a multicellular animal from a audible corpuscle occurs stepwise. See 6.

18-2-1. Beef appear from a audible corpuscle and become altered because of the affiliation of centralized and ecology signals accustomed by the cell. See 5-2, 6-4-1, 8-2.

18-2-2. Development of a multicellular animal is a action consisting of a cardinal of ordered steps.

Plasmids 14: Restriction Cloning - what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments
Plasmids 14: Restriction Cloning – what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments | what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments

18-2-3./6-4. One corpuscle assay can accord acceleration to two beef that will differentiate into two audible corpuscle types, confined two audible functions. And all 6-4 subparts.

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Restriction Enzymes – PowerPoint Slides – what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments | what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments
DNA-Probe for Non-Destructive Chromatin Sequence Extraction ..
DNA-Probe for Non-Destructive Chromatin Sequence Extraction .. | what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments
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Brevet US14 – Method for immobilizing DNA – Google Brevets – what .. | what enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments

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